In order to be eligible for Medicaid benefits a nursing home resident may have no more than $2,000 in “countable” assets (the figure may be somewhat higher in some states). Note that Medicaid is a state-run program, so the rules are somewhat different in each state, although there are federal guidelines.
The spouse of a nursing home resident–called the “community spouse” — is limited to one half of the couple’s joint assets up to $130,380 (in 2021) in “countable” assets. This figure changes each year to reflect inflation. Called the “community spouse resource allowance,” this is the most that a state may allow a community spouse to retain without a hearing or a court order. The least that a state may allow a community spouse to retain is $26,076 (in 2021).
Example: If a couple has $100,000 in countable assets on the date the applicant enters a nursing home, he or she will be eligible for Medicaid once the couple’s assets have been reduced to a combined figure of $52,000 — $2,000 for the applicant and $50,000 for the community spouse.
Some states, however, are more generous toward the community spouse. In these states, the community spouse may keep up to $130,380 (in 2021), regardless of whether or not this represents half the couple’s assets. For example, if the couple had $100,000 in countable assets on the “snapshot” date, the community spouse could keep the entire amount, instead of being limited to half. Virginia does not follow the practice of these more generous states.
All assets are counted against these limits unless the assets fall within the short list of “noncountable” assets. These include the following:
- Personal possessions, such as clothing, furniture, and jewelry.
- One motor vehicle, regardless of value, as long as it is used for transportation of the applicant or a household member. The value of an additional automobile may be excluded if needed for health or self-support reasons (check your state’s rules).
- The applicant’s principal residence, provided it is in the same state in which the individual is applying for coverage. In some states, the home will not be considered a countable asset for Medicaid eligibility purposes as long as the nursing home resident intends to return home; in other states, the nursing home resident must prove a likelihood of returning home. In Virginia, the rules are restrictive: the home is excluded only if the community spouse lives there, a dependent child under the age of 21 lives there, a disabled child lives there, or the patient can prove a likelihood of being able to return home. Under the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA), principal residences may be deemed noncountable only to the extent their equity is less than $603,000 (in 2021), with the states having the option of raising this limit to $906,000 (in 2021). In all states and under the DRA, the house may be kept with no equity limit if the Medicaid applicant’s spouse lives there or if someone in specific categories of dependent relatives lives there.
- Prepaid funeral plans and a tiny face value amount of life insurance.
- Assets that are considered “inaccessible” for one reason or another (this will not exclude assets that carry heavy penalties for accessing them, such as traditional or rollover IRAs or annuities).
Careful planning, whether in advance or in response to an unanticipated need for care, can help protect your estate while still meeting Medicaid’s strict asset limits. To learn more, consult with your elder law attorney.
*This article is provided for persons interested in elder law issues in Virginia and across the United States. This article has been written by a practitioner in the field of elder law, but unless otherwise noted, the writer is not affiliated with ThompsonMcMullan, P.C. Nothing in the newsletter or the articles is, or is intended to be, legal advice or a substitute for legal advice. If you need legal advice of any kind, please consult an attorney with experience in that area of the law, whether in our firm, or otherwise.